This guide explains how to format your documents in Microsoft Word so that they follow the standard rules for formatting academic papers as described in most MLA and APA style books for undergraduate writing. These rules apply to most of the papers you will submit in your college classes, but in some cases your professors will want you to follow specific guidelines that may differ from those below. Always clarify with your professor which set of guidelines he or she wants you to follow before you submit a paper.
Using standard formatting for academic papers shows that you understand the customs of the university community and therefore helps to boost your own credibility. Using unusual or highly distinctive formatting, on the other hand, suggests that your previous schooling did not adequately prepare you for university work. Consider the impact of unusual formatting: not only does it call attention to your paper in a way that might not be positive, professors might also see it as a sign that you’re trying to artificially inflate page length.
Note: These instructions apply to all versions of Word for Mac and for the 2003 version of Word for Windows. I haven’t yet updated them to include instructions for the 2007 version of Word for Windows, but the tools should nevertheless be easy to find if you look around on the toolbar at the top.
Rule: Papers submitted for review or grading should have 1” margins all around. This should be the default for Word, but if your default setting is to have left and right margins of 1.25”, change your default. Page length requirements are based on 1” margins.
Instructions: Go to the Format menu, drag down to Document, change the margins, and the click on the Default button and accept the change to the Normal template. Make sure you leave the gutter set to 0” or you’ll mess up your document formatting.
Rule: The first line of each paragraph should be automatically indented.
Instructions: This should be the default for Word, but if not, you might want to change your Normal style, as described above. To change the indentation format for a document, choose Select All from the Edit menu. Then go to the Format menu, drag down to Paragraph, look under the “Special” drop-down menu in the Indentation section, and select “First Line.” This setting automatically indents the first line of a new paragraph so that you don’t have to do it manually.
Rule: College papers should be in a standard academic font: either Times New Roman or Cambria, in 12pt size. (If you submit a paper in another font, I will change it on the file I download.)
Instructions: Times New Roman or Cambria 12pt should be the default for Word, but if yours is different then change your default. Go to the Format menu, drag down to Style, make sure “Normal” is selected from the list of styles, and click “modify.” Choose the correct font and size from the Formatting menu. Click “OK” to make the change to your default settings.
Rule: The text of your paper should be left aligned, NOT justified, as justified text is hard to read if it hasn’t been professionally typeset. The default in Word is left alignment, so don’t change it.
FIRST PAGE FORMAT
Rule: In the upper left corner of the first page of your document, type your name, the date, the course number and section (or topic), and the version of the paper (such as Paper 1 Second Draft), each on a separate line. Be sure to change the date and paper version when you submit revisions and final versions. See the sample below.
DO NOT use the “headers” feature from the header/footer menu to create this full heading as that will make it appear on every page, which is not customary in academic writing. Also do NOT use a title page unless the assignment specifically asks for one.
Rule: Skip a line after the heading and center an original title that conveys the topic of your paper. Do not use underlining or italics in the heading (unless you’re referring to the title of a book or periodical). Do not use bold text or ALL CAPS.
Sample First Page
Rule: All papers should have automatically inserted page numbers that show in the upper right corner on all pages except the first. Do not insert these page numbers by hand. Instead, use Word’s Header/Footer tool.
For documents following MLA format, put your last name and page number in the upper right corner. For documents following APA format, put a short version of your title (instead of your last name) and the page number in the upper right corner.
Instructions: Go to the View menu and choose “Header and Footer.” You’ll see a header box appear at the top and a footer box at the bottom. Click in the header box, type your last name (or title), make it align to the right, and then select Page Numbers from the Insert menu.
When you’re finished, click on the “Close” tab under the Header view. Each page of your document should now display a page number at the upper right that updates automatically when you make changes to the document. It will appear as grayed out text unless you active the Header and Footer tool to make changes.
To change the setting so that page numbers do not display on the first page, go to the Format men, drag down to Document, and click on the Layout button. Then check the box next to “Different First Page.” Click OK. If necessary, remove the header that appears on the first page and insert a header on the second page, which will automatically appear on all subsequent pages as well.
Rule: The entire paper should be double-spaced, including the heading and bibliography.
Instructions: Choose “Select All” from the Edit menu, go to the Format menu and drag down to Paragraph, and choose “double” from the “line spacing” menu in the Spacing section. Or you can use these keyboard shortcuts. On a Mac, use Cmd-A to select all and Cmd-2 to double-space. On a PC, use Ctrl-A to select all and Ctrl-2 to double space.
Rule: Papers should have no extra spacing after paragraphs. This should be the default for Word, but if your default setting is to have 10pt spacing after paragraphs, change your default.
Instructions: Go to the Format menu, drag down to Style, make sure “Normal” is selected from the list of styles, and click “modify.” In the lower left corner, select the dropdown menu that starts with “Format” and drag down to Paragraph. In the paragraph settings menu that pops up, change the settings for Spacing After to 0pt.
CREATE NEW PAGE
Instead of using a lot of returns before starting your bibliography, create a new page for it following these instructions.
Go to the Insert menu, drag down to Break, and then drag over to Page Break.
Rule: If a quotation will exceed four lines within a paragraph, you should separate it out by blocking and indenting it. As with any quotation, a blocked quotation should be clearly introduced by the sentence that leads up to it and it should also be properly cited, but the rules for blocked quotations are somewhat different. The blocking take the place of quotation marks, and unlike in a regular in-paragraph quotation, the parenthetical citation goes outside of the final period instead of inside of it (given that the blocked quote might contain several sentences.)
Instructions: Type the quotation in its own paragraph, without quotation marks, and remove the indent from the first line. Type the source in parentheses after the last period of the last sentence. With your cursor, select the quotation, from the first word to the end of the parenthetical citation, and click the Increase Indent button from the Paragraph Formatting menu.
A few simple steps to help make your Word documents more accessible.
It is not always possible to make all your Word documents accessible to all users so it is important to remember that you should also provide a document tagline that offers to provide the information in an alternative format upon request.
Styles and headings
Use the styles and formatting toolbar in Word when structuring your document as this will make it easier for disabled users to adapt the document to meet their needs and to navigate around the document if using a screen reader.
It is best practice to type word documents in font size 14, and no smaller than font size 12, to assist readers with visual impairments.
Remember that no one font size will suit everyone. However, it should be easy to provide the document in an alternative font size upon request.
It is best to avoid the use of non sans-serif fonts, such as Times New Roman.
The more ornate the font, the fewer the number of individuals who will be able to read it. 'Word Art' is not compatible with some screen readers.
The recommended fonts are:
Capitals, bold, underlining and italics
Avoid the use of Italics and underlining wherever possible.
Continuous text should not be in capitals, although a couple of words in capitals is acceptable.
Wherever possible use bold to emphasise items or create headings as this is the most accessible type of formatting.
Contrast and text colour
For the University it is usually best to use dark ink against a pale background as this is best for users with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia, although some users with visual impairments may find a pale font on a dark background easier.
It is important that there is sufficent contrast between the font colour and the background colour. For example, black font on a cream or yellow background is a good contrast. Backgrounds should always be plain.
Some individuals may require printed documents on different coloured paper as this can assist those with dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties.
Use left alignment.
Do not use justified text as this makes the spaces between words uneven which can make it difficult for some individuals to read. By aligning to the left you ensure the spaces between words are equal.
Double or 1.5 spacing between lines can make a document more accessible.
One line space at least should always be left between paragraphs.
If you are creating a form; the larger you make the response areas the better, as this will make the document more accessible to individuals with physical dexterity impairments.
Avoid glossy paper or laminated documents as these produce glare which can make them inaccessible. Uncoated paper is best.
In addition, make sure the paper is thick enough that print from one side of the paper does not show through to the other side. The Royal National Institute for the Blind recommend paper over 90gsm.
If you are folding the document, to place it in an envelope for example, make sure the fold lines do not cross over text as this makes it unreadable to scanners or screen magnifiers.
To ease accessibility (and usability) ensure all pages are numbered in the same place. Adding in contents and summaries can make longer documents easier to navigate.
Avoid the use of abbreviations which have not been given in full the first time they are used in the document.
Also, avoid the use of particularly long sentences and use words and phrases that best suit your audience.
The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) TechDis has a guide on writing accessibility with Word.
Request an alternative format
To request this document in an alternative format, such as large print or on coloured paper, please contact Viki Galt, the Disability Information Officer.