Essays Mairie Bordeaux

A

Acciani, Antonia (dir.), Petrarca e Montaigne. L’arte imperfetta dell’io, Bari, Prodegit, 2006, 98p.

Adam, Michel, Études sur Pierre Charron, Bordeaux, Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 1991, 238p.

Adam, Wolfgang, Verspätete Ankunft. Montaignes Journal de voyage im 18. Jahrhundert. Reception eines frühneuzeitlichen Textes, Heidelberg, Universitätsverlag Winter, 2012, 209p.

Albou, Philippe, Une interview de Montaigne sur la Médecine, Paris, Klincksieck, 1992, 31p.

Allard, Gérald, La Boétie et Montaigne sur les liens humains, Québec, Le Griffon d’argile, 1994, 312p.

Ancekewicz, Elaine M., The Critical Connection : The Question of History and the Essays of Michel de Montaigne, New Orleans, University Press of the South, 2002, 348p.

Andreae, Daniel, Michel de Montaigne, Stockholm, Natur och kultur, 1959, 92p.

Anonyme, Des vaines subtilitez, Rouen, E. Cagniard, 1872, 13p.

Anonyme, Catalogue général des livres imprimés de la Bibliothèque Nationale. Auteurs. Tome CXVII Molmenti – Montazon, Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1932, 1122p.

Anonyme, Montaigne 1533 – 1933, Bordeaux, Ville de Bordeaux, 1933, 39p.

Anonyme, Montaigne. Ses livres, ses amis, son temps. Exposition organisée par la ville de Bordeaux à l’occasion du IVe centenaire de Michel de Montaigne 1533-1933, Bordeaux, Imprimerie Delmas-Chapon-Gounouilhou, 1933, 39p.

Anonyme, Exposition du 4e centenaire des Essais de Montaigne, Bordeaux, Hôtel de Ville de Bordeaux, 1980, 8p.

Anonyme, Les Essais de Montaigne. Catalogue des éditions et des exemplaires présentés par la Bibliothèque municipale de Bordeaux dans sa galerie d’exposition à l’occasion du IVe centenaire de la première édition (Bordeaux, Simon Millanges, 1580), Bordeaux, Bibliothèque municipale de Bordeaux, 1980, 63p.

Anonyme, Les Écrivains et la politique dans le Sud-Ouest de la France autour des années 1580. Quatrième centenaire de l’accession de Montaigne à la mairie de Bordeaux, 1581-1981. Actes du colloque de Bordeaux (6-7 novembre 1981), [Talence], Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 1982, 226p.

Anonyme, Lettres de Montaigne, Bordeaux, L’Horizon Chimérique, 1991, 97p.

Anonyme, Michel de Montaigne, Journal de son voyage en Suisse avec douze eaux-fortes de Marcel North, Neuchâtel, Ides et Calendes, 1994, 37p.

Anonyme, Autour de Montaigne, Bordeaux, Éditions Le Festin, 2012, 80p.

Anzai, Tetsuo, Shakespeare and Montaigne Reconsidered, Tokyo, The Renaissance Institute, 1986, ii-96p.

Aragay, Ignasi (dir.), Diccionari Montaigne, Barcelone, Pòrtic Edición, 2009, 192p.

Argenson, René Louis de Voyer, Essais dans le goût de ceux de Montaigne,composés in 1736, Amsterdam, 1785, 410p.

Argod-Dutard, Françoise (dir.), Histoire et littérature au siècle de Montaigne. Mélanges offerts à Claude-Gilbert Dubois, Genève, Droz, 2001, 409p.

Argod-Dutard, Françoise (dir.), Des signes au sens : lectures du livre III des Essais. Journées d’Etudes du Centre Montaigne de Bordeaux (14-15 novembre 2002), Paris, Honoré Champion, 2003, 264p.

Armagnac, Alain, Le Sarladais La Boétie et son Discours de la servitude volontaire, Sarlat, Périgord Culture, 1982, 90p.

Armaingaud, Arthur, Montaigne pamphlétaire. L’énigme du Contr’un, Paris, Hachette, 1910, xvi-341p.

Armaingaud, Arthur, Bibliothèque du Dr A. Armaingaud. Catalogue annoté de toutes les éditions des Essais de Montaigne (1580-1927), Paris, Conard, 1927, 41p.

Arnould, Jean-Claude (dir.), Montaigne et le nouveau monde. Actes du Colloque organisé à la Sorbonne par la Société Internationale des Amis de Montaigne (18-20 mai 1992), Paris, Bulletin de la Société des Amis de Montaigne, 1992, 292p.

Arnould, Jean-Claude (éd.), Le Promenoir de Monsieur de Montaigne. Texte de 1641, avec les variantes des éditions de 1594, 1595, 1598, 1599, 1607, 1623, 1626, 1627, 1634, Paris, Honoré Champion, 1996, 218p.

Arnould, Jean-Claude (dir.), Marie de Gournay et l’édition de 1595 des Essais de Montaigne. Actes du colloque organisé par la Société Internationale des Amis de Montaigne (9-10 juin 1995), Paris, Honoré Champion, 1996, 246p.

Arnould, Jean-Claude (éd.), Marie de Gournay, Œuvres complètes, 2 vol., Paris, Honoré Champion, 2002, 2071p.

Atkinson, James (éd.), La Boétie. Discourse on Voluntary Servitude, Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company, 2012, 46p.

Aulotte, Robert (dir.), Les Essais de Montaigne, Cahiers de l’Association Internationale des Études Françaises, n° 33, 1981.

Aulotte, Robert, Montaigne : Essais, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1988, 127p.

Avron, Philippe, Montaigne, Shakespeare, mon père et moi, Paris, Lansman, 2011, 41p.

Azar Filho, Celso Martins, A Filosofia de Montaigne. Introdução ao Pensamento Renascentista, Rio de Janeiro, Editora Gama Filho, 2009, 168p.


B

Bachelot, Jean, Montaigne, Rome/Milan, Compagnia Edizioni Internazionali, 1966, 158p.

Badescu, Sandra, Madame de Sévigné et Michel de Montaigne. L’écriture intime à la lettre et à l’essai, New York, Peter Lang, 2008, 196 pages.

Bady, René, L’Homme et son ‘institution’ de Montaigne à Bérulle, 1580-1625, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1964, 586p.

Bailly, Auguste, Montaigne, Paris, Arthème Fayard, 1942, 352p.

Bakewell, Sarah, How to Live : A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer, Londres, Chatto & Windus, 2010, 320p.

Bakewell, Sarah, Comment vivre ? - une vie de Montaigne en une question et vingt tentatives de réponse, Paris, Albin Michel, 2013, 496p.

Bale, Kjersti, Tekstens temperering. Michel de Montaignes essayistiske fremstillinsmåte, Oslo, Pax Forlag, 2003, 304p.

Ballainvilliers, Bernard de, Montaigne aux champs Élysée, dialogues en vers, Paris, Delaunay, 1823, 480p.

Balmas, Enea (dir.), Montaigne e l’Italia. Atti del Congresso internazionale di studi di Milano-Lecco (26-30 ottobre 1988), Genève, Slatkine, 1991, 646p.

Balmer, Hans Peter, Montaigne und die Kunst der Frage. Grundzüge der « Essais », Francke A. Verlag, 2008, 127p.

Balsamo, Jean ; Simonin, Michel, Abel L’Angelier & Françoise de Louvain (1574-1620), suivi du catalogue des ouvrages publiés par Abel L’Angelier (1574-1610) et la veuve L’Angelier (1610-1620), Genève, Droz, 2002, 636p.

Balsamo, Jean ; Magnien, Michel ; Magnien-Simonin, Catherine (éd.), Montaigne, Les Essais, Gallimard, collection de La Pléiade, 2007, 1975p.

Baraz, Michaël, L’Etre et la connaissance selon Montaigne, Paris, José Corti, 1968, 217p.

Barnett, R. L., Dynamics of Detour. Codes of Indirection in Montaigne, Pascal, Racine, Tübingen, G. Narr, 1986, 145p.

Barousse, Claude, Petit Vade-Mecum Montaigne, Arles, Actes Sud 1992, 161p.

Barrère, Joseph, Estienne de La Boétie contre Nicolas Machiavel. Étude sur les mobiles qui ont déterminé Estienne de La Boétie à écrire le Discours de la servitude volontaire, Bordeaux, Albert Mollat, 1908, 98p.

Barrère, Joseph, L’Humanisme et la Politique dans le Discours de la Servitude Volontaire. Étude sur les origines du texte et l’object du Discours d’Estienne de la Boetie, Paris, Champion, 1923, 244p.

Barrière, Pierre, La Vie intellectuelle en Périgord 1550-1800, Bordeaux, Éditions Delmas, 1936, 587p.

Barrière, Pierre, Montaigne gentilhomme français, Bordeaux, Éditions Delmas, 1940, 115p.

Batisse, François, Montaigne et la médecine, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1962, 289p.

Battista, Anna Maria, Alle origini della pensiero politico libertino : Montaigne e Charron, Milan, A. Giuffrè, 1966, 287p.

Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe ; Fournier, Hannah (éd.), Marie Le Jars de Gournay, Les Advis, ou les Presens de la Demoiselle de gournay, 1641, Amsterdam, Rodopi, 1997, 261p.

Belin, Christian. L’Œuvre de Pierre Charron 1541-1603. Littérature et théologie de Montaigne à Port-Royal, Paris, Honoré Champion, 1995, 355p.

Belleli, Maria Luisa, Modernità di Montaigne, Rome, Formiggini, 1933, 197p.

Bellenger, Yvonne, Montaigne : une fête pour l’esprit, Paris, Balland, 1987, 385p.

Bénard, Pierre (éd.), Analyses & réflexions sur Montaigne. Essais : Des cannibales, Des coches, Paris, Edition Marketing, 1994, 112p.

Bencivenga, Ermanno, The Discipline of Subjectivity. An Essay on Montaigne, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1990, xi-132p.

Bénévent, Christine (éd.), Des cannibales de Michel de Montaigne suivi de La peur de l’autre, Paris, Folioplus, 2008, 288p.

Benmakhlouf, Ali, Montaigne, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 2008, 202p.

Benoist, Pierre, Au pays de Montaigne. Le Ministre Pierre Magne (1806-1879), Périgueux, Pierre Fanlac, 1986, 74p.

Benson, Edward, Money & Magic in Montaigne : The Historicity of the Essais, Genève, Droz, 1995, 197p.

Bernard, Paul, À l’école de Montaigne.Comment devenir un homme cultivé, Paris, Fernand Nathan, 1938, 256p.

Berns, Thomas, Violence de la loi à la Renaissance. L’originaire du politique chez Machiavel et Montaigne, Paris, Éditions Kimé, 2000, 453p.

Berven, Dikka (dir.), Montaigne : A Collection of Essays, 5 vol., New York, Garland Publishing, 1995, xviii-433, vi-353, vi-385, vi-317, xix-375p.

Best, Henry, A sauts et à gambades avec Montaigne, Ambilly-Annemasse, Éditions franco-suisses, 1974, 146p.

Bettoni, Anna ; Rinaldi, Massimo ; Rippa Bonati, Maurizio (dir.), Michel de Montaigne e il termalismo. Atti del Convegno internazionale di Battiglia Terme – April 20-21, 2007, Florence, Leo Olschki, 2009, 190p.

Bigorie de Laschamps, François de, Michel de Montaigne, sa vie, son œuvre et son temps, Paris-Rennes, A. Vaton & Verdier, 1855, 324p.

Billeskov Jansen, Frederik Julius, Sources vives de la pensée de Montaigne. Étude sur les fondements psychologiques et biographiques des Essais, Copenhague-Paris, Levin & Munksgaard & Félix Alcan, 1935, 99p.

Bimbenet, Jean Eugène, Les Essais de Montaigne dans leurs rapports avec la législation moderne, Orléans, Herluison, 1864, 73p.

Biot, Jean-Baptiste, Montaigne. Discours qui a obtenu une mention dans le concours proposé par l’Académie, Paris, Michaud Frères, 1812, 68p.

Bippus, Hans-Peter, In der Theologie nicht bewandert ? : Montaigne und die Theologie, Tübingen-Basel, Tübinger Studien zur Theologie und Philosophie, 2000, 525p.

Birchal de Souza, Telma, O Eu nos Ensaios de Montaigne, Belo Horizonte, Editora Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 2007, 262p.

Birchal de Souza, Telma (dir.), Montaigne : Novas leituras, Belo Horizonte, Kriterion. Revista de Filosofia, 2012, 618p.

Blanchard, Marc, Trois portraits de Montaigne : essai sur la représentation à la Renaissance, Paris, A-G. Nizet, 1990, 288p.

Blasberg, Hans, Die wortstellung bei Montaigne, Bochum-Langendreer, H. Pöppinghaus o.h.-g., 1937, vii-67p.

Blattmann, Ekkehard ; Hoth-Blattmann, Barbara (dir.), Studien zu Montaigne und zu Heinrich Mann. Zur Textkonstitution von Montaignes Essay II,6. Zu Montaigne in Heinrich Manns Henri Quatre Roman, Frankfort, Peter Lang, 1992, 173p.

Blinkenberg, Andreas, Montaigne, Copenhague, Gyldendal, 1970, 399p.

Bloom, Harold (dir.), Modern Critical Views. Michel de Montaigne, New York, Chelsea House, 1987, viii-246p.

Blum, Claude ; Moureau, François (dir.), Etudes montaignistes en hommage à Pierre Michel, Genève, Slatkine, 1984, 258p.

Blum, Claude (dir.), Montaigne et les Essais 1588 - 1988. Actes du congrès de Paris (janvier 1988), Paris, Honoré Champion, 1990, 257p.

Blum, Claude (dir.), Montaigne. Apologie de Raimond Sebond. De la Theologia à la Théologie, Paris, Honoré Champion, 1990, 362p.

Blum, Claude (dir.), Montaigne. Penseur et philosophe (1588 - 1988). Actes du congrès de littérature française tenu en ouverture à l’année de la francophonie les 20, 21, et 22 Mars 1989 à Dakar, Paris, Honoré Champion, 1990, 233p.

Blum, Claude ; Tournon, André (dir.), Éditer le Essais de Montaigne. Actes du colloque tenu à l’Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne (27-28 janvier 1995), Paris, Honoré Champion, 1997, 226p.

Blum, Claude ; Derendinger, Philippe ; Toia, Anne (dir.), Montaigne : Journal de voyage en Alsace et en Suisse (1580-1581), Paris, Honoré Champion, 2000, 264p.

Boase, Alan M., The Fortunes of Montaigne. A History of the Essays in France, 1580-1669, Londres, Methuen, 1935, viii-462p.

Bomer, John M., The Presence of Montaigne in the « Lettres persanes », Birmingham, Summa publications, 1988, 179p.

Boncour, Jean-Paul, Estienne De La Boétie et les origines des libertés modernes, Paris, Alcan-Lévy, 1899, 83p.

Bond, Warwick, Montaigne. A Study, Londres, Henry Frowde, 1906, viii-93p.

Bonnefon, Paul, Estienne de La Boétie, sa vie, ses ouvrages et ses relations à Montaigne, Bordeaux, P. Chollet, 1888, 150p.

Bonnefon, Paul, Montaigne. L’homme et l’œuvre, Bordeaux-Paris, G. Gounouilhou & J. Rouam, 1893, 502p.

Bonnefon, Paul, La Boétie. Discours de la Servitude volontaire, suivi du Mémoire touchant l’édit de janvier 1562, Paris, Éditions Bossard, 1922, 214p.

Bonnefon, Paul, Œuvres complètes d’Estienne La Boétie, Genève, Slatkine Reprints, 1967, 444p.

Bonnefon, Paul, Montaigne et ses amis. La Boétie - Charron - Mlle de Gournay, 2 vol., Genève, Slatkine, 1969, 339p. & 413p.

Bonnet, Pierre, Bibliographie méthodique et analytique des ouvrages et documents relatifs à Montaigne (jusqu’à 1975), Genève, Slatkine, 1983, 586p.

Boon, Jean-Pierre, Montaigne : Gentilhomme et essayiste, Paris, Éditions Universitaires, 1971, 110p.

Borel, Pierre, Autour de Montaigne. Études littéraires, Neuchatel-Paris, Delachaux & Niestlé, 1945, 137p.

Boscheron des Portes, C.-B.-F., Histoire du parlement de Bordeaux depuis sa création jusqu’à sa suppression (1451-1790), 2 vol., Bordeaux, Ch. Lefèvre, 1878, 516p. & 494p.

Botineau, Pierre (dir.), Montaigne : maire de Bordeaux, gentilhomme d’Aquitaine, écrivain de France. Une évocation à l’aide de quelques documents, Bordeaux, Bibliothèque de Bordeaux, 1994, 40p.

Boudou, Bénédicte (dir.), Le Dictionnaire des Essais de Montaigne, Paris, Léo Scheer, 2011, 718p.

Bouillier, Victor, La Renommée de Montaigne en Allemagne, Paris, E. Champion, 1921, 64p.

Bourdic-Viot, Henriette, Éloge de Montaigne, Paris, Charles Pougens, 1800, 107p.

Boutaudou, Christiane, Montaigne. Textes et débats, Paris, Librairie générale française, 1984, 384p.

Bouvier, Michel, J’ai vaincu la mort. Montaigne rendu aux siens,Paris, François-Xavier de Guibert, 2007, 271p.

Bouvier, Michel, Le Grand coucher de l’universelle vanité.Montaigne rendu aux siens, Paris, François-Xavier de Guibert, 2008, 254p.

Bouvier, Michel, Vivre heureusement. Montaigne rendu aux siens, Paris, François-Xavier de Guibert, 2010, 260p.

Bowen, Barbara, The Âge of Bluff. Paradox & Ambiguity in Rabelais & Montaigne, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1972, viii-168p.

Bowman, Frank Paul, Montaigne :Essays, Londres, Edward Arnold, 1965, 63p.

Brach, Pierre de, Lettre sur la mort de Montaigne. Choix de poèmes, Bordeaux, L’Horizon chimérique, 1988, 75p.

Brahami, Frédéric, Le Scepticisme de Montaigne, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1997, 125p.

Brahami, Frédéric, Le Travail du scepticisme : Montaigne, Bayle, Hume, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2001, 253p.

Bratkowski, Stefan, W drodze do Montaigne, Varsovie, Czytelnik, 2012, 424p.

Bredal, Björn Hansen, La Peur, le rire et la sagesse. Essai sur Rabelais et Montaigne, Copenhague, Tusculanum, 1985, 157p.

Bredal, Björn, Humanist till häst. En bok om Michel de Montaigne, Stockholm, 1993, Atlantis, 182p.

Bredal, Björn, Et renæssancemenneske. Michel de Montaigne, Copenhague, Gyldendal, 2005, 293p.

Brody, Jules, Lectures de Montaigne, Lexington, French Forum Publishers, 1982, 181p.

Brody, Jules, Nouvelles lectures de Montaigne, Paris, Honoré Champion, 1994, 194p.

Brody, Jules ; Cave, Terence ; Garavini, Fausta ; Jeanneret, Michel ; Tournon, André (dir.), Carrefour Montaigne, Pise-Genève, Edizioni ETS-Slatkine, 1994, 145p.

Brousseau-Beuermann, Christine, La Copie de Montaigne : étude sur les citations dans les Essais, Paris, Honoré Champion, 1989, 308p.

Brown, Frieda, Religious and political conservatism in the Essais of Montaigne, Genève, Droz, 1963, 109p.

Brunetière, Ferdinand, Études sur Montaigne (1898-1907), Paris, Honoré Champion, 1999, 156p.

Brunold, Charles ; Jacob, J. (dir.), De Montaigne à Louis de Broglie. Textes philosophiques, Paris, Librairie classique Eugène Belin, 1965, 576p.

Brunschvicg, Léon, Descartes et Pascal lecteurs de Montaigne, Neuchâtel, La Baconnière, 1945, 210p.

Brush, Craig B., Montaigne and Bayle : Variations on the Theme of Skepticism, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1966, xi-361p.

Brush, Craig B., From the Perspective of the Self : Montaigne’s Self-Portrait, New York, Fordham University Press, 1994, 321p.

Buffum, Imbrie, L’Influence du voyage de Montaigne sur les Essais, Princeton, Princeton University, 1946, 153p.

Buffum, Imbrie, Studies in the Baroque. From Montaigne to Rotrou, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1957, 256p.

Bulletin de la Société des Amis de Montaigne, 1913-présent.

Bullett, Gerald, Montaigne : A Book of Good Faith. A Miscellany of Passages, Reflecting the Richness and Liberality of Montaigne’s Mind, Londres, Watts & Co, 1938, 147p.

Burke, Peter, Montaigne, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1981, 81p.

Busson, Henri, Littérature et théologie. Montaigne, Bossuet, La Fontaine, Prévost, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1962, 240p.

Busson, Henri, Le Rationalisme dans la littérature française de la Renaissance (1533-1601), Paris, J. Vrin, 1971, 654p.

Butor, Michel, Essais sur les Essais, Paris, Gallimard, 1968, 216p.


C

Callado, Antonio, A Expediçao Montaigne, Rio de Janeiro, Editora Nova Fronteira, 1982, 129p.

Cameron, Keith, Montaigne et l’humour, Paris, J. Minard, 1966, 56p.

Cameron, Keith (dir.), Montaigne and his Age, Exeter, University of Exeter Press, 1981, 202p.

Cameron, Keith ; Willett, Laura (dir.), Le Visage changeant de Montaigne. The Changing Face of Montaigne, Paris, Honoré Champion, 2003, 394p.

Campion, Edmund J., Montaigne, Rabelais & Marot as Readers of Erasmus, Lewiston, Edwin Mellen Press, 1995, 176p.

Canal, Denis (éd.), Montaigne. Les Essais. Choix de textes, Paris, Larousse, 1994, 320p.

Cancalon, Auguste, L’Esprit positif et scientifique dans Montaigne, Paris, Edouard Pelletan, 1911, 42p.

Cappa, Carlo, Michel de Montaigne. L’appartenenza della scrittura : il dialogo tra vita ed opera negli Essais,Milan, Franco Angeli, 2003, 206p.

Carbone, Raffaele, Différence e mélange in Montaigne. Mostri, metamorfosi, mescolamenti, Milan, Mimesis, 2013, 353p.

Carlyle, Thomas, Montaigne and Other Essays, Chiefly Biographical, [1897], Plainview, Books for Library Press, 1976, xiv-297p.

Caron, Elisabeth, Les Essais de Montaigne ou les échos satiriques de l’humanisme, Paris, Éditions CERES, 1993, 164p.

Carraud, Vincent ; Marion, Jean-Luc (dir.), Montaigne : scepticisme, métaphysique, théologie, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2004, 272p.

Casalini, Cristiani ; Salvarani, Luana (éd.), L’Educazione, Essais 25-29, Rome, Anicia, 157p.

Casals Pons, Jaume, La Filosofia de Montaigne, Barcelone, Editions 62, 329p.

Castañón, Adolfo, Por el pais de Montaigne, Mexico, Editorial Paidós, 2000, 204p.

Catalan, Etienne, Études sur Montaigne. Analyse de sa philosophie, Paris, Mellier frères, 1846, 351p.

Catalan, Etienne, Manuel des honnêtes gens. Philosophie pratique de Montaigne, Paris, Jules Renouard et Cie, 1853, 365p.

Caudron, Hervé, Apprendre à philosopher avec Montaigne, Paris, Ellipses, 2013, 208p.

Cavaillé, Christian, Montaigne et l’expérience, Futuroscope, Scéren (CNDP-CRDP), 2012, 94p.

Cavallini, Concetta, L’Italianisme de Michel de Montaigne, Fasano-Paris, Schena Editore-Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 2003, 366p.

Cavallini, Concetta, « Cette belle besogne » : étude sur le Journal de voyage de Montaigne avec une bibliographie critique, Fasano-Paris, Schena Editore-Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 2005, 408p.

Cave, Terrence, How to read Montaigne, Londres, Granta Books, 2007, 112p.

Céard, Jean ; Bjaï, Denis ; Boudon, Bénédicte ; Pantin, Isabelle (éd.), Montaigne, Les Essais, Paris, Le Livre de Poche, collection La Pochotèque, 2001, 1853p.

Ceccarelli Pellegrino, Alba, Il « Diario di viaggio » di Montaigne in Italia. Mappa alberghiera e gastronomica, Città di Castello, Tibergraph Ed., 1989, 81p.

Cels, Jacques, Montaigne au château de Gournay, Bruxelles, Éditions de l’Ambedui, 1992, 74p.

Chaban-Delmas, Jacques, Montaigne, Paris, Michel Lafon, 1992, 240p.

Chaillou, Michel, Domestique chez Montaigne, Paris, Gallimard, 1982, 277p.

Chamizo Dominguez, Pedro José, La Doctrina de la verdad en Michel de Montaigne, [Málaga], Universidad de Málaga, 1984, 259p.

Champeaud, Grégory, Le Parlement de Bordeaux et les paix de religion (1563-1600). Une genèse de l’Édit de Nantes, Nérac, Éditions d’Albret, 2008, 440p.

Champion, Edmé, Introduction aux Essais de Montaigne, Paris, Armand Colin, 1900, xii-315p.

Chappuit, Jean-François, Cruauté et amitié d’après Montaigne et Shakespeare. Renaissance d’une théologie laïque, Lille, ANRT, 2001, 607p.

Chardin, Marc-Henri, Lire et relire Montaigne, lumière des temps, Paris, Éditions Glyphe, 2009, 248p.

Charpentier, Françoise, Essais de Montaigne, Paris, Hatier, 1980, 79p.

Charpentier, Françoise (dir.), Montaigne. Les derniers essais. Actes de la journée d’étude Montaigne (30 novembre 1985), Cahiers Textuels, n° 12, 1986, 104p.

Charpentier, Françoise (dir.), Le livre I des Essais de Montaigne. Actes de la journée d’étude Montaigne (6 novembre 1992), Cahiers Textuels 33/44, 1993, 168p.

Charron, Jean-Daniel, The Wisdom of Pierre Charron. An Original and Orthodox Code of Morality, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1960, 153p.

Chateau, Jean, Montaigne, psychologue et pédagogue, Paris, Vrin, 1971, 275p.

Chavardès, Maurice, Michel de Montaigne, Paris, Éditions Pierre Charron, 1972, 136p.

Cherubini, Marcello ; Landucci, Vittorio (dir.), L’Esperienza di Michel de Montaigne ai Bagni della Villa, Lucca, Fondazione Michel de Montaigne, Istituto storico Lucchese, 2009, 77p.

Christodoulou, Kyriaki, Considérations sur les essais de Montaigne, Athènes, 1984, 150p.

Christodoulou, Kyriaki (dir.), Montaigne et la Grèce. Actes du colloque de Calamata et de Messène (23-26 septembre 1988), Paris, Aux Amateurs de Livres, 1990, 254p.

Christodoulou, Kyriaki (dir.), Montaigne et l’histoire des Hellènes, 1592-1992. Actes du colloque de Lesbos (25-29 septembre 1992), Paris, Klincksieck, 1995, 276p.

Citoleux, Marc, Le Vrai Montaigne, théologien et soldat, Paris, P. Lethielleux, 1937, 313p.

Citton, Yves, Impuissances, défaillances masculines et pouvoir politique, de Montaigne à Stendhal, Paris, Aubier, 1994, 418p.

Clark, Carol, The Web of Metaphor. Studies in the Imagery of Montaigne’s Essais, Lexington, French Forum Publishers, 1978, 190p.

Clément, Michèle, Le Cynisme à la Renaissance, d’Érasme à Montaigne, Genève, Droz, 2005, 284p.

Clive, H. Peter, Bibliographie annotée des ouvrages relatifs à Montaigne publiés entre 1976 et 1985. Avec un complément de la Bibliographie de Pierre Bonnet, Paris, Honoré Champion, 1990, 250p.

Coats, Wendell John, Montaigne’s Essais, New York/Frankfurt, Peter Lang, 2004, 125p.

Cocula, Anne-Marie, Montaigne, maire de Bordeaux, [Bordeaux], L’Horizon chimérique, 1992, 108p.

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D

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F

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Gardeau, Léonie, Gurson Montaigne, terres d’histoire, Bayac, Éditions du Roc de Bourzac, 1992, 255p.

Gauna, Max, The Dissident Montaigne, New York, Peter Lang, 1989, 303p.

Gauna, Max, Montaigne and the Ethics of Compassion, Lewiston, Edwin Mellen Press, 2000, xiv-329p.

Gauthiez, Pierre, Études sur le seizième siècle : Rabelais, Montaigne, Paris, Lecène, Oudin, 1893, 337p.

Gauvin, Gaël, Montaigne. Anthologie, Paris, Librio, 2002, 126p.

Geonget, Stéphan ; Gerbier, Laurent (dir.), Amitié & Compagnie. Autour du Discours de la servitude volontaire de La Boétie, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2012, 214p.

Gerdemann, Johannes, Das Tier in der Philosophie Montaignes, Würzburg, Druck der Bonitas-Bauer’schen Hofdruckerei, 1897, 79p.

Gessmann, Martin, Montaigne und die Moderne. Zu den philosophischen Grundlagen einer Epochenwende, Hamburg, Felix Meiner Verlag, 1997, vi-180p.

Ghiolfi Rodamar, Danièle, Montaigne et la Logique de Port-Royal, Ravenne, Longo Editore, 1992, 115p.

Giacone, Franco (dir.), La Langue de Rabelais. La langue de Montaigne (actes du colloque de Some, septembre 2003), Genève, Droz, 2009, 608p.

Gide, André, Les Pages immortelles de Montaigne, Paris, Corrêa, 1948, 220p.

Giocanti, Sylvia, Penser l’irrésolution : Montaigne, Pascal, La Mothe Le Vayer. Trois itinéraires sceptiques, Paris, Honoré Champion, 2001, 732p.

Glaudes, Pierre, L’Essai : métamorphoses d’un genre, Toulouse, Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 2002, 472p.

Glauser, Alfred, Montaigne Paradoxal, Paris, A.-G. Nizet, 1972, 156p.

Gontabert, Nadia ; Prassoloff, Annie, Etienne de La Boétie, De la servitude volontaire ou Contr’un suivi de sa réfutation par Henri de Mesmes, suivi de Mémoire touchant l’édit de janvier 1562, Paris, Gallimard, coll. « Tel », 1993, 303p.

Gontier, Thierry, De l’homme à l’animal. Paradoxes sur la nature des animaux : Montaigne et Descartes, Paris, J. Vrin, 1998, 318p.

Gontier, Thierry ; Magnard, Pierre (dir.), Montaigne, Paris, Éditions du Cerf, coll. « Cahiers d’histoire de la philosophie », 2009, 352p.

Gontier, Thierry ; Mayer, Suzel (dir.), Le Socratisme de Montaigne, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2010, 397p.

Gougenheim, George ; Schuhl, Pierre-Maxime, Trois essais de Montaigne (I-39, II-1, III-2), Paris, J. Vrin, 1951, 146p.

Gourgues, Alexis de,

This article is about the city in France. For the wine, see Bordeaux wine. For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation).

"Burdigala" redirects here. For the ocean liner, see SS Burdigala.

Bordeaux
Prefecture and commune

'Clockwise from top:Place de la Bourse by the Garonne, Allees du Tourny and Maison de Vin, Pierre Bridge on the Garonne, Meriadeck Commercial Centre, front of Palais Rohan Hotel, and Saint-Andre Cathedral with Bordeaux Tramway


Coat of arms
Motto(s): Lilia sola regunt lunam undas castra leonem.
"The fleur-de-lis alone rules over the moon, the waves, the castle, and the lion" (in French: Seule la Fleur de Lys règne sur la lune, les vagues, le château et le lion)

Bordeaux

Location within Nouvelle-Aquitaine region

Bordeaux

Coordinates: 44°50′N0°35′W / 44.84°N 0.58°W / 44.84; -0.58Coordinates: 44°50′N0°35′W / 44.84°N 0.58°W / 44.84; -0.58
CountryFrance
RegionNouvelle-Aquitaine
DepartmentGironde
ArrondissementBordeaux
Canton5 cantons
IntercommunalityBordeaux
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020[1])Alain Juppé (LR)
Area149.36 km2 (19.06 sq mi)
 • Urban (2010)1,172.79 km2 (452.82 sq mi)
 • Metro (2010)5,613.41 km2 (2,167.35 sq mi)
Population (2014[2])2246,586
 • Rank9th in France
 • Density5,000/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Urban (January 2011)760,933 [3]
 • Metro (2013)1,195,335[4]
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
INSEE/Postal code33063 /
Website

www.bordeaux.fr

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameBordeaux, Port of the Moon
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv
Reference1256
Inscription2007 (31st Session)
Area1,731 ha
Buffer zone11,974 ha

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Bordeaux (French pronunciation: ​[bɔʁdo]; GasconOccitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne River in the Girondedepartment in southwestern France.

The municipality (commune) of Bordeaux proper has a population of 246,586 (2014). Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 760,933 inhabitants (as of 2014[update]) and 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth largest in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse and Lille. It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" (for men) or "Bordelaises" (women). The term "Bordelais" may also refer to the city and its surrounding region.

Bordeaux is the world's major wine industry capital. It is home to the world's main wine fair, Vinexpo,[5] and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century. The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century.[6] After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France.[7]

History[edit]

See also: Timeline of Bordeaux

In historical times, around 300 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala, probably of Aquitanian origin. The name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city.

In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, and the Tigurini led by Divico. The Romans were defeated and their commander, the consulLucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action.

The city fell under Roman rule around 60 BC, its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead towards Rome. Later it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing especially during the Severan dynasty (3rd century). In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414 and the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.

In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingiankingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, a certain Gallactorius is cited as count of Bordeaux and fighting the Basques.

The city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after storming the fortified city and overwhelming the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux, eventually taking on them in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne, described as taking a heavy death toll. After Duke Eudes's defeat, the Aquitanian duke could still save part of its troops and keep his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers.

In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but it was not retained for long. The following year, the Frankish commander descended again over Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles' sons Pepin and Carloman against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps (or duke) strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, and his son Waifer replaced him, who in turn confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city (along with Bourges in the north).

During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine (760–768), it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac (Frontiacus, Franciacus) on a hill across the border with the Basques (Wascones), where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him (769).

In 778, Seguin (or Sihimin) was appointed count of Bordeaux, probably undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, and possibly leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that very year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia. They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but was captured and put to death. No bishops were mentioned during the whole 8th century and part of the 9th in Bordeaux.

From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England. The city flourished, primarily due to the wine trade, and the cathedral of St. André was built. It was also the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince (1362–1372), but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon (1453), it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette (Trumpet Castle) and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.

In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine.[8]

Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde, being effectively annexed to the Kingdom of France only in 1653, when the army of Louis XIV entered the city.

The 18th century was the golden age of Bordeaux. Many downtown buildings (about 5,000), including those on the quays, are from this period. Victor Hugo found the town so beautiful he once said: "Take Versailles, add Antwerp, and you have Bordeaux". Baron Haussmann, a long-time prefect of Bordeaux, used Bordeaux's 18th-century large-scale rebuilding as a model when he was asked by Emperor Napoleon III to transform a then still quasi-medieval Paris into a "modern" capital that would make France proud.

In 1814, towards the end of the Peninsula war, the Duke of Wellington sent William Beresford with two divisions, who seized Bordeaux without much resistance on 12 March. Bordeaux was largely anti-Bonapartist and had a majority that supported the Bourbons, so the British troops were treated as liberators.

In 1870, at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war against Prussia, the French government temporarily relocated to Bordeaux from Paris. This happened again during the First World War and again very briefly during the Second World War, when it became clear that Paris would soon fall into German hands. However, on the last of these occasions the French capital was soon moved again to Vichy. In May and June 1940, Bordeaux was the site of the life-saving actions of the Portuguese consul-general, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, who illegally granted thousands of Portuguese visas, which were needed to pass the Spanish border, to refugees fleeing the German Occupation.

From 1940 to 1943, the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina Italiana) established BETASOM, a submarine base at Bordeaux. Italian submarines participated in the Battle of the Atlantic from this base, which was also a major base for German U-boats as headquarters of 12th U-boat Flotilla. The massive, reinforced concrete U-boat pens have proved impractical to demolish and are now partly used as a cultural center for exhibitions.

Geography[edit]

Bordeaux is located close to the European Atlantic coast, in the southwest of France and in the north of the Aquitaine region. It is around 500 km (310 mi) southwest of Paris. The city is built on a bend of the river Garonne, and is divided into two parts: the right bank to the east and left bank in the west. Historically the left bank is more developed because when flowing outside the bend, the water makes a furrow of the required depth to allow the passing of merchant ships, which used to offload on this side of the river. In Bordeaux, the Garonne River is accessible to ocean liners. The right bank of the Garonne is a low-lying, often marshy plain.

Climate[edit]

Bordeaux's climate is usually classified as an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classificationCfb); however, the summers tend to be warmer and the winters milder than most areas of similar classification. Substantial summer rainfall prevents its climate from being classified as Mediterranean.

Winters are cool because of the prevalence of westerly winds from the Atlantic. Summers are warm and long due to the influence from the Bay of Biscay (surface temperature reaches 21 to 22 °C (70 to 72 °F). The average seasonal winter temperature is 7.1 °C (44.8 °F), but recent winters have been warmer than this. Frosts in the winter are commonplace, occurring several times during a winter, but snowfall is very rare, occurring only once every three years. The average summer seasonal temperature is 20.7 °C (69.3 °F). The summer of 2003 set a record with an average temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F).[9]

Climate data for Bordeaux-Mérignac (1981–2010 averages)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.2
(68.4)
26.2
(79.2)
27.7
(81.9)
31.1
(88)
35.4
(95.7)
39.2
(102.6)
38.8
(101.8)
40.7
(105.3)
37.0
(98.6)
32.2
(90)
26.7
(80.1)
22.5
(72.5)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F)10.1
(50.2)
11.7
(53.1)
15.1
(59.2)
17.3
(63.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.5
(76.1)
26.9
(80.4)
27.1
(80.8)
24.0
(75.2)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
10.5
(50.9)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)6.6
(43.9)
7.5
(45.5)
10.3
(50.5)
12.4
(54.3)
16.1
(61)
19.3
(66.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
18.5
(65.3)
14.9
(58.8)
9.9
(49.8)
7.2
(45)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F)3.1
(37.6)
3.3
(37.9)
5.4
(41.7)
7.4
(45.3)
11.0
(51.8)
14.1
(57.4)
15.8
(60.4)
15.7
(60.3)
12.9
(55.2)
10.4
(50.7)
6.1
(43)
3.8
(38.8)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F)−16.4
(2.5)
−15.2
(4.6)
−9.9
(14.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.5
(36.5)
4.8
(40.6)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
−12.3
(9.9)
−13.4
(7.9)
−16.4
(2.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)87.3
(3.437)
71.7
(2.823)
65.3
(2.571)
78.2
(3.079)
80.0
(3.15)
62.2
(2.449)
49.9
(1.965)
56.0
(2.205)
84.3
(3.319)
93.3
(3.673)
110.2
(4.339)
105.7
(4.161)
944.1
(37.169)
Average precipitation days12.210.111.011.910.98.37.17.59.211.012.612.4124.3
Average snowy days1.11.20.60.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.20.83.9
Average relative humidity (%)88847876777675767985878880.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours96.0114.9169.7182.1217.4238.7248.5242.3202.7147.294.481.82,035.4
Source #1: Météo France[10][11]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[12]

Economy[edit]

Bordeaux is a major centre for business in France as it has the fifth largest metropolitan population in France.

As of 2014[update], the GDP of Bordeaux is €32.7 Billion.

Wine[edit]

Main article: Bordeaux wine

The vine was introduced to the Bordeaux region by the Romans, probably in the mid-first century, to provide wine for local consumption, and wine production has been continuous in the region since.[13]

Bordeaux now has about 116,160 hectares (287,000 acres) of vineyards, 57 appellations, 10,000 wine-producing châteaux and 13,000 grape growers. With an annual production of approximately 960 million bottles,[14] Bordeaux produces large quantities of everyday wine as well as some of the most expensive wines in the world. Included among the latter are the area's five premier cru (first growth) red wines (four from Médoc and one, Château Haut-Brion, from Graves), established by the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855: The first growths are:

In 1855, Mouton-Rothschild was ranked a Second Growth. In 1973, it was elevated to First Growth status.[15]

Both red and white wines are made in Bordeaux. Red Bordeaux is called claret in the United Kingdom. Red wines are generally made from a blend of grapes, and may be made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit verdot, Malbec, and, less commonly in recent years, Carménère.

White Bordeaux is made from Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon, and Muscadelle. Sauternes is a sub-region of Graves known for its intensely sweet, white, dessert wines such as Château d'Yquem.

Because of a wine glut (wine lake) in the generic production, the price squeeze induced by an increasingly strong international competition, and vine pull schemes, the number of growers has recently dropped from 14,000 and the area under vine has also decreased significantly. In the meantime, the global demand for first growths and the most famous labels markedly increased and their prices skyrocketed.

The Cité du Vin, a museum as well as a place of exhibitions, shows, movie projections and academicseminars on the theme of wine opened its doors in June 2016.[16]

Others[edit]

The Laser Mégajoule will be one of the most powerful lasers in the world, allowing fundamental research and the development of the laser and plasma technologies. This project, carried by the French Ministry of Defence, involves an investment of 2 billion euros. The "Road of the lasers", a major project of regional planning, promotes regional investment in optical and laser related industries leading to the Bordeaux area having the most important concentration of optical and laser expertise in Europe.

Some 20,000 people work for the aeronautic industry in Bordeaux. The city has some of the biggest companies including Dassault, EADS Sogerma, Snecma, Thales, SNPE, and others. The Dassault Falcon private jets are built there as well as the military aircraftRafale and Mirage 2000, the Airbus A380cockpit, the boosters of Ariane 5, and the M51 SLBMmissile.

Tourism, especially wine tourism, is a major industry. Globelink.co.uk mentioned Bordeaux as the best tourist destination in Europe in 2015.[17]

Access to the port from the Atlantic is via the Gironde estuary. Almost nine million tonnes of goods arrive and leave each year.

Major companies[edit]

This list includes indigenous Bordeaux-based companies and companies that have major presence in Bordeaux, but are not necessarily headquartered there.

Population[edit]

At the January 2011 census, there were 239,399 inhabitants in the city proper (commune) of Bordeaux. Bordeaux in its hey day had a population of 262,662 in 1968.[18] The majority of the population is French, but there are sizable groups of Italians, Spaniards (Up to 20% of the Bordeaux population claim some degree of Spanish heritage), Portuguese, Turks, Germans. https://www.citypopulation.de/php/france-gironde.php?cityid=33063.

The built-up area has grown for more than a century beyond the municipal borders of Bordeaux due to urban sprawl, so that by the January 2011 census there were 1,140,668 people living in the overall metropolitan area of Bordeaux,[4] only a fifth of whom lived in the city proper.

Population change(See database)
179318001806182118311836184118461851
104,67691,65292,21989,20299,06298,705104,686125,520130,927
185618611866187218761881188618911896
149,928162,750194,241194,055215,140221,305240,582252,415256,906
190119061911192119261931193619461954
256,638251,947261,678267,409256,026262,990258,348253,751257,946
19621968197519821990199920062011-
249,688266,662223,131208,159210,336215,363232,260239,399-

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006) ·[19]

Population Over Time

  
 
 
 
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1800

 

1820

 

1840

 

1860

 

1880

 

1900

 

1920

 

1940

 

1960

 

1980

 

2000

 


Largest communities of foreigners :

 Portugal10,709
 Morocco7,215
 Algeria4,770
 Spain3,911
 Turkey3,743
 UK1,379
 Tunisia1,366
 Senegal1,126
 China1,043
 Germany922
 Belgium902
 Italy894
 Romania885
 Republic of the Congo841

Politics[edit]

At the 2007 presidential election, the Bordelais gave 31.37% of their votes to Ségolène Royal of the Socialist Party against 30.84% to Nicolas Sarkozy, president of the UMP. Then came Francois Bayrou with 22.01%, followed by Jean-Marie Le Pen who recorded 5.42%. None of the other candidates exceeded the 5% mark. Nationally, Nicolas Sarkozy led with 31.18%, then Ségolène Royal with 25.87%, followed by François Bayrou with 18.57%. After these came Jean-Marie Le Pen with 10.44%, none of the other candidates exceeded the 5% mark. In the second round, the city of Bordeaux gave Ségolène Royal 52.44% against 47.56% for Nicolas Sarkozy, the latter being elected President of the Republic with 53.06% against 46.94% for Ségolène Royal. The abstention rates for Bordeaux were 14.52% in the first round and 15.90% in the second round. This is an earthquake in Bordeaux, a city deeply rooted right traditions[citation needed].

In the parliamentary elections of 2007, the left won eight constituencies against only three for the right. It should be added that after the partial 2008 elections, the eighth district of Gironde switched to the left, bringing the count to nine. In Bordeaux, the left was for the first time in its history the majority as it held two of three constituencies following the elections. In the first division of the Gironde, the outgoing UMP MP Chantal Bourragué was well ahead with 44.81% against 25.39% for the Socialist candidate Beatrice Desaigues. In the second round, it was Chantal Bourragué who was re-elected with 54.45% against 45.55% for his socialist opponent. In the second district of Gironde the UMP mayor and all new Minister of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea Alain Juppé confronted the General Counsel PS Michèle Delaunay. In the first round, Alain Juppé was well ahead with 43.73% against 31.36% for Michèle Delaunay. In the second round, it was finally Michèle Delaunay who won the election with 50.93% of the votes against 49.07% for Alain Juppé, the margin being only 670 votes. The defeat of the so-called constituency "Mayor" showed that Bordeaux was rocking increasingly left. Finally, in the third constituency of the Gironde, Noël Mamère was well ahead with 39.82% against 28.42% for the UMP candidate Elizabeth Vine. In the second round, Noël Mamère was re-elected with 62.82% against 37.18% for his right-wing rival.

In 2008 municipal elections saw the clash between mayor of Bordeaux, Alain Juppé and the President of the Regional Council of Aquitaine Socialist Alain Rousset. The PS had put up a Socialist heavyweight in the Gironde and had put great hopes in this election after the victory of Ségolène Royal and Michèle Delaunay in 2007. However, after a rather exciting campaign it was Alain Juppé who was widely elected in the first round with 56.62%, far ahead of Alain Rousset who has managed to get 34.14%. At present, of the eight cantons that has Bordeaux, five are held by the PS and three by the UMP, the left eating a little each time into the right's numbers.

In the European elections of 2009, Bordeaux voters largely voted for the UMP candidate Dominique Baudis, who won 31.54% against 15.00% for PS candidate Kader Arif. The candidate of Europe Ecology José Bové came second with 22.34%. None of the other candidates reached the 10% mark. The 2009 European elections were like the previous ones in eight constituencies. Bordeaux is located in the district "Southwest", here are the results:

UMP candidate Dominique Baudis: 26.89%. His party gained four seats. PS candidate Kader Arif: 17.79%, gaining two seats in the European Parliament. Europe Ecology candidate Bove: 15.83%, obtaining two seats. MoDem candidate Robert Rochefort: 8.61%, winning a seat. Left Front candidate Jean-Luc Mélenchon: 8.16%, gaining the last seat. At regional elections in 2010, the Socialist incumbent president Alain Rousset won the first round by totaling 35.19% in Bordeaux, but this score was lower than the plan for Gironde and Aquitaine. Xavier Darcos, Minister of Labour followed with 28.40% of the votes, scoring above the regional and departmental average. Then came Monique De Marco, Green candidate with 13.40%, followed by the member of Pyrenees-Atlantiques and candidate of the MoDem Jean Lassalle who registered a low 6.78% while qualifying to the second round on the whole Aquitaine, closely followed by Jacques Colombier, candidate of the National Front, who gained 6.48%. Finally the candidate of the Left Front Gérard Boulanger with 5.64%, no other candidate above the 5% mark. In the second round, Alain Rousset had a tidal wave win as national totals rose to 55.83%. If Xavier Darcos largely lost the election, he nevertheless achieved a score above the regional and departmental average obtaining 33.40%. Jean Lassalle, who qualified for the second round, passed the 10% mark by totaling 10.77%. The ballot was marked by abstention amounting to 55.51% in the first round and 53.59% in the second round.

Only candidates obtaining more than 5% are listed

Rue Sainte-Catherine in 1905

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