Israel And Palestine Conflict Essay Samples

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Essay

Introduction:

The struggle between the Israelis and the Palestinians is one of the most enduring and explosive of all the world's conflicts.  It has its roots in the historic claim to the land which lies between the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan river.  For the Palestinians the last 100 years have brought colonization, expulsion and military occupation, followed by a long and difficult search for self-determination and for coexistence with the nation they hold responsible for their suffering and loss.  For the Jewish people of Israel, the return to the land of their forefathers after centuries of persecution around the world has not brought peace or security. They have faced many crises as their neighbors have sought to wipe their country off the map.  The purpose of this essay is to determine which group is the rightful occupants of the Holy Land.

Question:

  1. What determines land ownership in the case of Israel/Palestine?

  2. Does either group have a right to claim the land?

  3. Why or why not?

Process:

  1. I.Brainstorm

    1. A.Using notes, our text and all handouts, write down all information you can about the different claims to the Holy Land on the sheet provided

    2. B.Done in class 3/11

    3. C.10 points

  2. II.Thesis

    1. A.After examining the different cases, state your opinion on who has the best claim of ownership in the area

    2. B.Done in class 3/11

    3. C.10 points

  3. III.Document Analysis

    1. A.Using the analysis sheets provided, analyze the primary sources pertaining to claims on the Holy Land

    2. B.Due Monday 3/14

    3. C.20 points

  4. IV.Outline

    1. A.Using the outline packet, write an outline for the paper that provides your planned structure for the paper

    2. B.Due Tuesday 3/15

    3. C.20 points

  5. V.First Two Paragraphs

    1. A.Write the Introduction and First Body Paragraph of your paper

    2. B.Due Wednesday 3/16 for Block 2; Thursday 3/17 for Block 1

    3. C.20 points

  6. VI.Rough Draft

    1. A.Write a complete draft of your paper with all elements of the final draft

    2. B.Due Friday 3/18

    3. C.20 points

  7. VII. Peer Editing

    1. A.Using the peer editing sheets provided, edit at least two classmates’ papers

    2. B.Done in class 3/21

    3. C.10 points

  8. VIII. Final Draft

    1. A.Write a final draft that is:

      1. 1.3-5 pages long, typed in Times font, 12-point, double-spaced

    2. B.Due Thursday 3/23 for Bloc 2 and Friday 3/24 for Block1

    3. C.50 points

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay: Brainstorm and Thesis

Introduction:

We will be writing an essay in which you must state your belief and support that statement. 

Questions:

  1. What determines land ownership in the case of Israel/ Palestine?

  2. Does either group have a right to claim the land?

  3. Why or why not?

Step one: Brainstorming. Fill in BOTH sides of the chart.


Step Two : Writing your thesis.  Take a minute to evaluate your evidence.  Write a thesis which answers the essay question. The easiest way to write a thesis is to use wording from the actual question.

    1. Example thesis:

      1. Land ownership is determined by a people’s ability to gain and maintain control of the land; through that reasoning, the Israelis have a better claim of ownership on the Holy land because of their take over and control of the area.

Write your thesis here:

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Essay: Document Analysis

Instructions:

Analyze the following documents using the analysis sheets provided. Answer the questions as  thoroughly as possible.  Some questions may not be answered.

The document analysis sheet is linked below:

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/written_document_analysis_worksheet.pdf

Documents:

  1. Document A: The Sikes-Picot Agreement

  2. Document B: The Balfour Declaration

  3. Document C: Minutes from the meeting of the Eastern Committee of the British Parliament

  4. Document D: Churchill White Paper, 1922

  5. Document E: British White Paper, 1939

  6. Document F: United Nations Resolution, 1948

  7. Document G: Excerpt from The Lemon Tree, Palestinian Bashir’s visit to his home prior to Israeli independence

  8. Document H: Map of the Partition of Palestine, 1948

  9. Document I: Strangers in the House

  10. Document J:  Statement by Nasser

Document A

The Sykes-Picot Agreement : 1916

It is accordingly understood between the French and British governments:

That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognize and protect an independent Arab states or a confederation of Arab states (a) and (b) marked on the annexed map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall have priority of right of enterprise and local loans. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request of the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the blue area France, and in the red area Great Britain, shall be allowed to establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may think fit to arrange with the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the brown area there shall be established an international administration, the form of which is to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other allies, and the representatives of the Shereef of Mecca.

The Avalon Project, Yale University

Document B

This Letter, to Lord Rothschild, by the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, became known as the "Balfour Declaration". The letter was published a week later in The Times (London) of London.

Foreign Office
November 2nd, 1917
Dear Lord Rothschild:
I have much pleasure in conveying to you. on behalf of His Majesty's
Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:
His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge
of the Zionist Federation.

Yours,

Arthur James Balfour

Document  C     Extract fromMinutes of the Meeting of the Eastern Committee of the Cabinet (United Kingdom) of 5 December, 1918, in which Lord Curzon, the Foreign Secretary of the UK and  chairman of the committee, makes the following statement:

The Palestine position is this. If we deal with our commitments, there is first the general pledge to Hussein in October 1915, under which Palestine was included in the areas as to which Great Britain pledged itself that they should be Arab and independent in the future . . . Great Britain and France - Italy subsequently agreeing - committed themselves to an international administration of Palestine in consultation with Russia, who was an ally at that time . . . A new feature was brought into the case in November 1917, when Mr. Balfour, with the authority of the War Cabinet, issued his famous declaration to the Zionists that Palestine 'should be the national home of the Jewish people, but that nothing should be done - and this, of course, was a most important proviso - to prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine. Those, as far as I know, are the only actual engagements into which we entered with regard to Palestine.

Document  D    Extract fromthe British White Paper of June 3,1922 [also referred as the Churchill White Paper]:

[…] it is not the case, as has been represented by the Arab Delegation, that during the war His Majesty's Government gave an undertaking that an independent national government should be at once established in Palestine. This representation mainly rests upon a letter dated the 24th October, 1915, from Sir Henry McMahon, then His Majesty's High Commissioner in Egypt, to the Sharif of Mecca, now King Hussein of the Kingdom of the Hejaz. That letter is quoted as conveying the promise to the Sherif of Mecca to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories proposed by him. But this promise was given subject to a reservation made in the same letter, which excluded from its scope, among other territories, the portions of Syria lying to the west of the District of Damascus. This reservation has always been regarded by His Majesty's Government as covering the vilayet of Beirut and the independent Sanjak of Jerusalem. The whole of Palestine west of the Jordan was thus excluded from Sir. Henry McMahon's pledge.

Document  E     Extract fromthe British White Paper of May 17,1939

His Majesty's Government believe that the framers of the Mandate in which the Balfour Declaration was embodied could not have intended that Palestine should be converted into a Jewish State against the will of the Arab population of the country. [...] His Majesty's Government therefore now declare unequivocally that it is not part of their policy that Palestine should become a Jewish State. They would indeed regard it as contrary to their obligations to the Arabs under the Mandate, as well as to the assurances which have been given to the Arab people in the past, that the Arab population of Palestine should be made the subjects of a Jewish State against their will.

Document F

The resolution recommends that the United Kingdom (as mandatory power for Palestine) evacuate; armed forces should withdraw no later than August 1, 1948; independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem administered by the United Nations should come into existence;  the City of Jerusalem should preserve the interests of Christian, Jewish, and Muslim faiths.

UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II), August, 1948

Document G     Extract fromthe Lemon Tree by journalist Sandy Tolan, Bloomsbury, 2007, p. 207. This excerpt is from a Palestinian, Bashir, who is visiting what was, prior to 1948, his family’s home, and is currently being lived in by a Jewish family.

We were exiled by force of arms.  We were exiled on foot.  We were exiled to take the earth as our bed. And the sky as a cover.  And to be fed from the crums to those among the governments and international organizations who imparted their charity.  We were exiled but we left our souls, our hopes, our childhood in Palestine.  We left our joys and sorrows.  We left them in every corner, and on every grain of sand in Palestine. We left them with each lemon fruit, with each olive.  We left them in the roses and flowers.  We left them in the flowering tree that stands with pride at the entrance of our house in al-Ramla.  We left them in the remains of our fathers and ancestors.  We left them as witnesses and history.  We left them, hoping to return

Document H: United Nations partition of Palestine, 1948


Document I

Arab Palestinians began to leave their homes in cities in December 1947. The number of Arab Palestinians leaving their homes increased to hundreds of thousands by May 1948. During the last week of April in 1948, as the fighting came closer to their home, the Palestinian family in this passage left Jaffa for Ramallah. On May 14, 1948, Israel was established. This new country included the city of Jaffa. Ramallah was in the West Bank that became part of Jordan.

. . I grew up hearing the description of my father’s last visit to Jaffa, and it has left an indelible [permanent] impression on me. My father’s entire holdings were in and around Jaffa, the products of his own hard work. His father had left him nothing. How difficult it must have been to bid all this farewell. The image of my father, his every step echoing in the empty streets of the deserted city, still haunts me. . . .He moved on to the marketplace, empty except for a few shops that had somehow remained open. He walked passed Hinn’s, his barbershop, and found it closed. The courthouse was closed, as were the clinics, the nurseries, the cafés, the cinema. The place was deserted, prepared to be captured. What have we done, he wondered. How could we have all left? . . . Source: Raja Shehadeh,Strangers in the House: Coming of Age in Occupied Palestine,Penguin Books

Document J

Statement by President Nasser to Members of the Egyptian National Assembly. May 29, 1967

Then came the events of 1956-the Suez battle. We all know what happened in 1956. When we rose to demand our rights, Britain, France and Israel opposed us, and we were faced with the tripartite aggression. We resisted, however, and proclaimed that we would fight to the last drop of our blood. God gave us success and God's victory was great…Preparations have already been made. We are now ready to confront Israel. They have claimed many things about the 1956 Suez war, but no one believed them after the secrets of the 1956 collusion were uncovered- that mean collusion in which Israel took part. Now we are ready for the confrontation. We are now ready to deal with the entire Palestine question.

The issue now at hand is not the Gulf of Aqaba, the Straits of Tiran, or the withdrawal of the UNEF, but the rights of the Palestine people. It is the aggression, which took place in Palestine in 1948 with the collaboration of Britain and the United States. It is the expulsion of the Arabs from Palestine, the usurpation of their rights, and the plunder of their property. It is the disavowal of all the UN resolutions in favour of the Palestinian people..

Document K

Excerpts from the Hamas Charter

"After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying."

"Israel will exist and will continue to exist until Islam will obliterate it, just as it obliterated others before it." (The Martyr, Imam Hassan al-Banna, of blessed memory).

"The Islamic Resistance Movement believes that the land of Palestine is an Islamic Waqf consecrated for future Muslim generations until Judgment Day. It, or any part of it, should not be squandered: it, or any part of it, should not be given up.

Document L

The Bible. Genesis 17: 3-8

Abram fell facedown, and God said to him, 4 “As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations. 5 No longer will you be called Abram[a]; your name will be Abraham,[b] for I have made you a father of many nations. 6 I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. 7 I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you. 8 The whole land of Canaan, where you now reside as a foreigner, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God.”

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay: Outline Packet

Writing a paper should not be viewed as a one-step activity.  Rather, it should be a process that involves multiple steps that allow you to organize your thoughts in a way that helps you to write a clear, persuasive, and eloquent essay.

In this class, every time you write a paper, you will be asked to complete either an outline and/or a draft.  Both the outline and the draft will be handed in with the final draft for a grade.  I am not requiring you to do outlines and drafts to make your life miserable but rather to help you become a better writer. 

The structure of the essay is as follows:

Paragraph 1  (Introduction)

  1. The introduction should start broad and get more specific as it progresses. 

  2. The first thing you should do is to introduce the reader to the larger context of the essay.

    1. oThe first 1-2 sentences should contain background information (who, what, when, where, etc.)

    2. oFor example, if you are writing a paper on the Arab-Israeli Conflict, you need to provide some background; when it took place, who was involved, etc.  Do not dive right into the topic of the essay without giving the reader some sense of time and place (context).

  3. After you introduce the topic, you need to make the connection to your specific topic – transition from background information into what you will be writing about.

  1. The last sentence of the paragraph should contain a clear, concise thesis statement.

    1. oWhat is a thesis statement? 

      1. A thesis statement should illustrate an argument that you will prove over the course of the paper.

      2. A thesis statement should always contain brief mention of what the body of the paper will discuss in greater detail (i.e. it should summarize the topic sentences of the 3 body paragraphs.)

      3. If the question asks you to defend a particular point, the thesis statement will state the point as a fact and back it up with brief mention of 3 major reasons why it is true.  These reasons will then be the basis of the body of your paper.

Paragraph 2, 3, and 4  (Body Paragraph #1-3)

  1. Each body paragraph should start with a topic sentence to preview to the reader what the paragraph will discuss.

  1. Each body paragraph should contain three examples to support the specific point being addressed in the paragraph.

    1. oExamples should include quotations, facts, statistics, etc.

    2. oThis is where you will usually include quotations from texts and citations from readings and notes that you have.

  2. The body of your paper should be as specific as possible and should offer as clear and vivid illustrations as possible.

  3. The last sentence should not only bring the paragraph to a conclusion, but it should also serve as a transition into the next body paragraph (i.e. find a connection or relationship between the two paragraphs.)

Paragraph 5  (Conclusion)

  1. The conclusion should summarize the contents of the entire paper and should try and offer some additional insights (intelligent comments or observations) about the topic.

  2. Restate your argument – do not cut and paste the introduction verbatim or try to change one or two of the words from the introduction!

  3. Open the paper up.  It is here that you should try to do one of the following:

    1. oconnect your paper to the larger historical picture

    2. ostate its significance to the time period

    3. orelate it to later events or issues

    4. othink of other questions to ask (related to the topic)


What is the general topic of this essay?

What general information does the reader need about this topic?

(What is the topic being discussed?  What information is needed to give the reader enough background

to understand the topic?)

What will this essay explain and/or argue?

(What is your specific thesis?  Your thesis should contain the topics of your body paragraphs.)


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?)


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?)


What phrase serves as a transition from the body of the paper?

What more can now be said about the ideas expressed in the thesis statement?

(Restate, in new terms, the thesis statement.  Then add further reflections.)

What thought-provoking statement concludes the essay?

(So what?  Why is the topic of this essay important?  How can you broaden the scope of your

discussion?  How does the topic of the essay relate to the larger historical picture?  How does it relate to

later events/issues?)



Example of a College Admission essay on Politics about:

politics / israel / palestine / conflict / arab israeli conflict / arabic / jews / islam / middle east / war / united states / russia / peace

 

Title: How does Israel-Palestine Conflict affect relationship between biggest players of the world?

Introduction

            This analytical essay in politics discusses the ways Israel-Palestine Conflict affect relationship between biggest players of the world. The particular focus is made on the question why states like US, Russia, EU etc support either side of the ongoing conflict. The consequent influences on the political relations between the supporting states are also discussed.

General discussion

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is an ongoing tension between Israelis and the Palestinians being regarded as an indispensable part of the wider Arab–Israeli conflict. Since 1948 the State of Israel is in the center of the conflict between the Arab population and Zionists.

 

So far there have been many endeavors taken to cease fire and mitigate a two-state tension, which entails the establishment of the independent Palestinian state along with the State of Israel. Today, according to the nationwide polls, the overwhelming majority of Palestinians and Israelis would rather opt for the two-state solution to resolve the ongoing conflict. At that, the majority of Palestinians regard the West Bank and Gaza Strip as a constituent part of their future independent state, and such interpretation is also favored by most Israelis. Furthermore, many academics promote the idea of one-state solution, wherein Israel, the Gaza Strip, and West Bank should constitute a bi-national state assuming equal rights for all citizens.

 

Nonetheless, final consensus is the issue of controversy since there are many vital disagreements over the extent of credibility and commitments of either side of the continuous dispute. In both Israeli and Palestinian societies the conflict causes a multitude of views and opinions, and provokes significant gaps between Israelis and Palestinians, and also amongst themselves.

The key feature of the conflict is the expressed rate of violence in the form of fighting, killing people, intrusion of paramilitary groups and armies, and acts of terror. Both military and civilians are among the casualties and fatalities.

Casualty figures for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict from the OCHAoPt
(numbers in parentheses represent casualties under age 18)


Year

Deaths

Injuries

 

Palestinians

Israelis

Palestinians

Israelis

 

2008

 

 

 

 

 

2007

396 (43)

13 (0)

1843 (265)

322 (3)

 

2006

678 (127)

25 (2)

3194 (470)

377 (7)

 

2005

216 (52)

48 (6)

1260 (129)

484 (4)

 

Total

1290 (222)

86 (8)

6297 (864)

1183 (14)

 

 

The conflict has long ago become a serious issue on the international agenda. Strong international players are involved in resolving and negotiating the dispute. Primarily, the conflict is negotiated between the Israeli government led by Ehud Olmert and the Palestine Liberation Organization headed by Mahmoud Abbas.

At that, the rounds of official negotiations are mediated by the Quartet on the Middle East, which is an international contingent consisting of the United States, the European Union, Russia, and the United Nations. In addition, the Arab League is a key actor that offered an alternative peace plan. Egypt, as a founding member of the Arab League, has also historically participated in the conflict resolution.

Since 2003 the Palestinian side has been featured by the ongoing conflict between the two major factions - Fatah, the conventionally dominant party, and its main electoral rival - Hamas. Thus, Hamas occupies the Gaza Strip since June 2007 which is under control of the Palestinian National Authority, whereas Fatah dominates the West Bank. Such governance division has eventually caused the collapse of bipartisan governance of the Palestinian National Authority.

The most recent round of peace negotiations between the conflicting sides was launched in Annapolis Maryland USA, in November 2007 to attain the final resolution by the end of 2008. Thus, the disputing parties agreed on the core issues to be resolved. Overall, the stages of the peace process so far have been as follows:

  • Camp David Accords 
  • Madrid Conference
    Oslo Accords
  • Oslo II 
  • Hebron Protocol
    Wye River 
  • Sharm el-Sheikh Memoranda
    2000 Camp David Summit
  • Taba Summit
    Road Map 
  • Annapolis Conference 

At that the most controversial issues discussed so far concerned:

  • Anti-Semitic incitements
  • Israeli settlements
  • Israeli West Bank barrier
  • Jewish state
  • Palestinian political violence
  • Palestinian refugees 
  • Palestinian state
  • Places of worship 
  • Status of Jerusalem (Wikipedia, 2009)

 

 

For the time being the conflict zone is mainly featured by funerals, air strikes, and vows to fight the enemy – the permanent bloody circle continues as Hamas abandons a ceasefire.  The fragile peace process achieved so far is once again on the verge of collapse. At that, the Quartet members seeking to mediate peace in the Middle East have so far expressed opposing and controversial standpoints regarding the conflict. For instance, Russia financially supports Palestine, as well as Abbas policy in the Middle East.

Compared to other Quartet states, Russia recognises Hamas legitimacy and the control the Gaza Strip by this Islamic party. Simultaneously, Moscow maintains ties with Hamas rival Fatah. At that, Russia’s leadership calls for support for Abbas and restraint exercise. According to Sergey Lavrov,

“The Russian government supports Mahmoud Abbas as the leader of Palestine in a variety of areas. First and foremost, this concerns the security efforts deployed by the Palestinian government. We are also ready to encourage co-operation in investment.” (Russia Today, 2008)

In turn, China also supports and the policies led by Yasser Arafat striving to seek peace through the negotiation process China’s stance on Middle East conflict can be described as follows:

“We strongly condemn the present series of violent attacks on the civilians. The retaliation by Israel through military means does not help alleviate the conflict. Such events repeatedly taking place between Israel and Palestine prove the futility of a policy of an eye for an eye. They can only lead to even more violence and further escalation, harming civilians on both sides. We call on the two sides to stay calm in handling the serious situation, bringing an end to the cycle of revenge and counter- revenge and settling their dispute through negotiation. The only way to solve the question of the Middle East is a cessation of the Israeli military occupation of the Palestine territory on the basis of the principle of the land for peace, the implementation of all peace agreements, and the full restoration of all the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people, including their right to an independent state” (Russia Today, 2008).

The endeavours of the international community in due respect are associated with further attachment of relevant importance to the ongoing tensions between Israelis and Palestinians. At that, the UN Security Council which is primarily responsible for sustaining international peace and security should adequately respond to the hazardous developments in the Middle East situation.

At that, it is generally assumed that Americans support Israel and Europeans do not. According to the poll on the Israel-Palestine conflict conducted in April (2002), most Europeans (France 63%, Germany 63%, Italy 51%) had disapproved the then U.S. policies with towards the Middle East, while only 26% of Americans  expressed disapproval in due respect. Furthermore, most Europeans sided with Palestinians (France 36%, Great Britain 28%), or opted for non-support to either side (Germany 33%, Italy 32%). Most Americans, however, sympathized with Israel (41%), while 21% supported neither side, with mere 13% that supported the Palestinians.

Experts relate the extensive US support for the Israelis to the Jewish controlled media and powerful Jewish lobby groups in the U.S. As well as this, there is the powerful Evangelical Christian movement who are strong supporters of Israel. The so- called neoconservatives support Israel because they want to see America play a more powerful role in the world. At that, it is evident that Americans are more idealistic, whereas Europeans are more cynical (Frazier, 2002).

The US financial support for Israel is enormous worth about $3 billion per annum. This is added by unwavering political backing. Israel lobby in the U.S is well-financed, highly organized. After World War II, the U.S. took over the control over the Mideast from Britain. US annually guarantee Israel billions of dollars while supporting arms manufacturers. Thus, the US with its ‘democracy’ is damaged by the lobby’s “control” over Middle East policy (Weller, 2009). 

In 2002, on Israel initiative the Bush administration launched a roadmap - detailed and interlocked schedule of conditions to break the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, end violence and attain peace settlement. The US initially perceived the roadmap as a joint US and European initiative, involving the representatives from the EU, the UN and Russia who established ‘The Quartet’, to shape international policy aiming to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.  On September 17, 2002, the Quartet issued a statement envisaging a road map for peace. An outline of the program has evolved over the years. Israelis and Palestinians greeted each version, which contained a variety of reservations.

Following the Iraq war in the spring of 2003 when the pressure mounted on the USA, the Quartet decided to release a new version of the Roadmap to gain Palestinian-Israeli and Arab peace. The official text of the latest version of the roadmap was announced on April 30, 2003 following the elections of Mahmud Abbas as a Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority.

The roadmap greatly emphasized on compliance non-compliance, and all the relevant consequences to the side that would not comply. There were, however, controversial provisions include in the text of the roadmap. It was uncertain what the criterion was for deciding that the Palestinian leadership acted decisively against the terror attacks. What would happen if the Israel would not dismantle settlements? Thus, the roadmap was intensively criticized, and failed eventually as well as the Oslo accords – since the political statements were not supported by the effective mechanism to enforce the peace agreement. As of May 2005, the Palestinian Authority accepted the roadmap, though failed to implement key provisions, especially those regarding terror combating in effective manner. The Israeli government accepted the roadmap, though offered 14 reservations and failed to implement its key undertakings required for Phase I, including removal of illegal outposts and the freeze on settlement activity (Mideast Web, 2003).

In particular the statement of the Middle East Quartet during the meeting in New York on 16 July 2002, was signed by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov, High Representative for European Common Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana, Danish Foreign Minister Per Stig Moeller, and European Commissioner for External Affairs Chris Patten. The Quartet members assessed the ongoing situation in the Middle East and agreed to work on further consultations in compliance with the Madrid Declaration, to promote fair, comprehensive, and continuous settlement of the Middle East conflict. The main issues on the Quartet agenda were:

- Deploring tragic killing of Israeli civilians and condemning terrorism, including suicide bombing;

- Regretting the loss of innocent Israeli and Palestinian lives, and extending the sympathy to all those who have suffered loss.

- Restructuring security institutions to serve these goals that would lead to improvement in Palestinian security performance, essential to progress on other aspects of institutional transformation and realization of a Palestinian state committed to combating terror.

- Expressing concern about the mounting humanitarian crisis in Palestinian areas and their determination to address urgent Palestinian needs.

- Expressing wide support for the goal of achieving a final Israeli-Palestinian settlement which could be reached within three years from now.

- Welcoming President Bush’s commitment to active U.S. leadership toward that goal.

- Implementing the vision of two states, Israel and an independent, viable and democratic Palestine, living side by side in peace and security,

- Pledging all possible efforts to realize the goals of reform, security and peace and reaffirm that progress in the political, security, economic, humanitarian, and institution-building fields must proceed together.

- Welcoming the initiative of Saudi Arabia, endorsed by the Arab League Beirut Summit, as a significant contribution towards a comprehensive peace.

- Assisting progress toward the shared goals,

- Coordinating international campaign to support Palestinian efforts at political and economic reform.

- Encouraging the strong Palestinian interest in fundamental reform, including the Palestinian 100-Day Reform Program.

- Welcoming the willingness of regional states and the international community to assist the Palestinians to build institutions of good government, and to create a new governing framework of working democracy, in preparation for statehood.

- Implementing an action plan with appropriate benchmarks for progress on reform measures leading to the establishment of a democratic Palestinian state characterized by the rule of law, separation of powers, and a vibrant free market economy that can best serve the interests of its people.

- Assisting the parties in efforts to renew dialogue,

- Welcoming the recent high-level ministerial meetings between Israelis and Palestinians on the issues of security, economics and reform.

- Recognizing Israel’s legitimate security concerns, including immediate measures to ease the internal closures in certain areas and, as security improves through reciprocal steps, withdrawal of Israeli forces to their pre-September 28, 2000 positions.

- Building new and efficient Palestinian security capabilities on sound bases of unified command, and transparency and accountability with regard to resources and conduct.

- Calling upon Israel to take concrete steps to support the emergence of a viable Palestinian state.

- Releasing frozen tax revenues by application of more transparent and accountable mechanism

Hence, the Quartet reaffirmed the necessity for the negotiated permanent settlement based on UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338. This excludes There can be any military solution to the conflict, while Israelis and Palestinians should address the core issues that divide them through sustained negotiations.

Lasting peace and security should end the Israeli occupation since 1967. That measure would assure secure and recognized borders. Thus, the Quartet is highly committed o the goal of a comprehensive regional peace between Israel and Lebanon, and Israel and Syria, based upon Resolutions 242 and 338, the Madrid terms of reference, and the principle of land for peace.

The Quartet continued its further endeavours to support the work of the principals and assist the Task Force on Reform, as well as aid the parties in resuming a political dialogue in order to reach a solution to the core political questions.

Conclusion

With the help of the Quartet measures listed in due analysis, a two state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will be achieved through ceasing violence and terrorism. Thus the Palestinian leadership should act decisively against terror and build a practicing democracy based on the principles of tolerance and liberty. In turn, the Israeli side should express readiness to do all the necessary actions for the establishment of the democratic Palestinian state. Therefore, the two conflicting sides should unambiguously accept a negotiated settlement. The Quartet should further assist and facilitate the implementation of the peace settlement plan starting in Phase I (ENDING TERROR AND VIOLENCE, NORMALIZING PALESTINIAN LIFE, AND BUILDING PALESTINIAN INSTITUTIONS PRESENT TO MAY 2003).

The direct discussions between the parties assume that the Palestinians immediately undertake and unconditional cessation of violence, which should be accompanied by supportive measures undertaken by Israel. Palestinians and Israelis should resume security cooperation based on the Tenet work plan to end violence, terrorism, and incitement through restructured and effective Palestinian security services.

Overall, the Quartet role was immense in the conflict resolution, since historical stages of the two-side conflict showed that neither side has enough capacity to reach peace. Notwithstanding, the conflict is currently on the go, which means the deaths of thousands of civilians, terror, and disaster. Perhaps, the Quarter should take more decisive actions and directly interfere in to the zone of the never-ending conflict (Mideast Web 2003).

 

References

Frazier, G. 2002, Why Americans Support Israel and Europeans Don’t, retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.netanyahu.org/whyamsupisan.html

Mideast Web 2003, Quartet Roadmap to Israeli-Palestinian Peace2003, retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.mideastweb.org/quartetrm3.htm

Mideast Web 2003, Quartet Statement of July 16, 2002, retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.mideastweb.org/quartet.htm

Russia Today 2008, Moscow promises to support Palestine, retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.russiatoday.com/Politics/2008-12-23/Moscow_promises_to_support_Palestine.html

Weller, A 2009, Israel and the US - Does the Tail Wag the Dog? Retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.palestinechronicle.com/view_article_details.php?id=14970

Wikipedia 2009, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli%E2%80%93Palestinian_conflict

 

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