Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia in most parts of the world. The clinical picture is dominated by relatively stable, often paranoid, delusions,usually accompanied by hallucinations, particularly of the auditory variety, and perceptualdisturbances. Disturbances of affect, volition, and speech, and catatonic symptoms, are not prominent.With paranoid schizophrenia, your ability to think and function in daily life may be better than with other types of schizophrenia. You may not have as many problems withmemory, concentration or dulled emotions. Still, paranoid schizophrenia is a serious,lifelong condition that can lead to many complications, including suicidal behavior.(http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/paranoid-schizophrenia/DS00862)Patients who have paranoid schizophrenia that has thought disorder may be obviousin acute states, but if so it does not prevent the typical delusions or hallucinations from being described clearly. Affect is usually less blunted than in other varieties of schizophrenia, but a minor degree of incongruity is common, as are mood disturbancessuch as irritability, sudden anger, fearfulness, and suspicion. "Negative" symptoms such as blunting of affect and impaired volition are often present but do not dominate the clinical picture.The course of paranoid schizophrenia may be episodic, with partial or completeremissions, or chronic. In chronic cases, the florid symptoms persist over years and it isdifficult to distinguish discrete episodes. The onset tends to be later than in the hebephrenicand catatonic forms. (http://www.schizophrenia.com/szparanoid.htm)According to the World Health Organization, It describes statistics about mentaldisorders of year (2008). Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental illness affecting about 7 per thousand of the adult population, mostly in the age group 15-35 years. Though the
COLEGIO SAN AGUSTIN-BACOLODCollege of Nursing
PSYCHIATRIC NURSING CASE ANALYSIS RECORD (PNCAR)-INITIALINTRODUCTION (Narrative overview of patient’s diagnosis based on book view)
Bipolar disorders are those in which individuals experience the extremes of mood polarity. Individuals might feel very euphoric or very depressed. Although theterm
is accepted diagnostic terminology, many professionals and muchprofessional literature still use the terms manic-depressive or bipolar affective disorder (Keltner, Psychiatric Nursing 5
Edition, p. 393).Predisposing and precipitating factors of Bipolar Affective Disorder includesgenetic wherein First-degree relatives of people with BPI are approximately 7 timesmore likely to develop BPI than the general population. Remarkably, offspring of aparent with bipolar disorder have a 50% chance of having another major psychiatricdisorder (Soreff & McInnes, 2006). Moreover, according to Soreff (2006), Multiplebiochemical pathways likely contribute to bipolar disorder, which is why detecting oneparticular abnormality is difficult. A number of neurotransmitters have been linked tothis disorder, largely based on patients' responses to psychoactive agents.Environmentally, Because of the nature of their work, certain individuals have periodsof high demands followed by periods of few requirements. For example, one personwas a landscaper and gardener. In the spring, summer, and fall, he was busy. Duringthe winter, he was relatively inactive except for plowing snow. Thus, he appearedmanic for a good part of the year, and then he would crash and hibernate for the coldmonths.Schizophrenia, on the other hand, is a diagnostic term used to describe a major psychotic disorder characterized by disturbances in perception, thought process, realitytesting, feeling, behaviour, attention, motivation. Contributing to the overalldeterioration is a decline in psychosocial functioning (Keltner, Psychiatric Nursing 5
Edition, p. 339).The most common type of schizophrenia is Paranoid Schizophrenia. Theclinical picture is dominated by relatively stable, often paranoid, delusions, usuallyaccompanied by hallucinations, particularly of the auditory variety, and perceptualdisturbances. Disturbances of affect, volition, and speech, and catatonic symptoms,are not prominent.Examples of the most common paranoid symptoms are delusions of persecution, reference, exalted birth, special mission, bodily change, or jealousy;hallucinatory voices that threaten the patient or give commands, or auditoryhallucinations without verbal form, such as whistling, humming, or laughing;hallucinations of smell or taste, or of sexual or other bodily sensations; visualhallucinations may occur but are rarely predominant.The course of paranoid schizophrenia may be episodic, with partial or completeremissions, or chronic. In chronic cases, the florid symptoms persist over years and it isdifficult to distinguish discrete episodes. The onset tends to be later than in thehebephrenic and catatonic forms (WHO, ICD-10, 1992).